jQuery是非常优秀的工具,它能让我们开发项目时变得更容易。

但如果你想从零开始开发一个全新的项目,你应该考虑一下你的项目是否真的需要引入jQuery。也许你只需要几行技巧性的代码就能解决问题。如果你的项目是面向最新的现代浏览器,你真的可以考虑其它的一些简单的技术来代替jQuery。

浏览器的进步给我们带来了很多先进的JavaScript特征,新出现的原生内置(native)JavaScript功能可以很大程度的实现jQuery提供的功能。如果你能了解这些JavaScript新技术,就能在很多地方用纯JavaScript实现以前需要jQuery才能实现的技术。

元素操作

Add Class

jQuery

$(el).addClass(className);

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if (el.classList)
  el.classList.add(className);
else
  el.className += ' ' + className;

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el.classList.add(className);

After

jQuery

$(el).after(htmlString);

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el.insertAdjacentHTML('afterend', htmlString);

Append

jQuery

$(parent).append(el);

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parent.appendChild(el);

Before

jQuery

$(el).before(htmlString);

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el.insertAdjacentHTML('beforebegin', htmlString);

Children

jQuery

$(el).children();

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var children = [];
for (var i = el.children.length; i--;) {
  // Skip comment nodes on IE8
  if (el.children[i].nodeType != 8)
    children.unshift(el.children[i]);
}

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el.children

Clone

jQuery

$(el).clone();

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el.cloneNode(true);

Contains

jQuery

$.contains(el, child);

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el !== child && el.contains(child);

Contains Selector

jQuery

$(el).find(selector).length;

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el.querySelector(selector) !== null

Each

jQuery

$(selector).each(function(i, el){

});

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function forEachElement(selector, fn) {
  var elements = document.querySelectorAll(selector);
  for (var i = 0; i < elements.length; i++)
    fn(elements[i], i);
}

forEachElement(selector, function(el, i){

});

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var elements = document.querySelectorAll(selector);
Array.prototype.forEach.call(elements, function(el, i){

});

Empty

jQuery

$(el).empty();

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while(el.firstChild)
  el.removeChild(el.firstChild);

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el.innerHTML = '';

过滤

jQuery

$(selector).filter(filterFn);

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function filter(selector, filterFn) {
  var elements = document.querySelectorAll(selector);
  var out = [];
  for (var i = elements.length; i--;) {
    if (filterFn(elements[i]))
      out.unshift(elements[i]);
  }
  return out;
}

filter(selector, filterFn);

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Array.prototype.filter.call(document.querySelectorAll(selector), filterFn);

查找子元素

jQuery

$(el).find(selector);

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el.querySelectorAll(selector);

查找

jQuery

$('.my #awesome selector');

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document.querySelectorAll('.my #awesome selector');

获取属性值

jQuery

$(el).attr('tabindex');

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el.getAttribute('tabindex');

获取Html内容

jQuery

$(el).html();

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el.innerHTML

获取外层Html内容

jQuery

$('<div>').append($(el).clone()).html();

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el.outerHTML

获取CSS样式

jQuery

$(el).css(ruleName);

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// Varies based on the properties being retrieved, some can be retrieved from el.currentStyle
// https://github.com/jonathantneal/Polyfills-for-IE8/blob/master/getComputedStyle.js

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getComputedStyle(el)[ruleName];

获取文本内容

jQuery

$(el).text();

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el.textContent || el.innerText

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el.textContent

Has Class

jQuery

$(el).hasClass(className);

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if (el.classList)
  el.classList.contains(className);
else
  new RegExp('(^| )' + className + '( |$)', 'gi').test(el.className);

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el.classList.contains(className);

元素比较

jQuery

$(el).is($(otherEl));

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el === otherEl

比较类名

jQuery

$(el).is('.my-class');

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var matches = function(el, selector) {
  var _matches = (el.matches || el.matchesSelector || el.msMatchesSelector || el.mozMatchesSelector || el.webkitMatchesSelector || el.oMatchesSelector);

  if (_matches) {
    return _matches.call(el, selector);
  } else {
    var nodes = el.parentNode.querySelectorAll(selector);
    for (var i = nodes.length; i--;) {
      if (nodes[i] === el)
        return true;
    }
    return false;
  }
};

matches(el, '.my-class');

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var matches = function(el, selector) {
  return (el.matches || el.matchesSelector || el.msMatchesSelector || el.mozMatchesSelector || el.webkitMatchesSelector || el.oMatchesSelector).call(el, selector);
};

matches(el, '.my-class');

Offset

jQuery

$(el).offset();

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var rect = el.getBoundingClientRect()

{
  top: rect.top + document.body.scrollTop,
  left: rect.left + document.body.scrollLeft
}

Offset Parent

jQuery

$(el).offsetParent();

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el.offsetParent || el

Outer Height

jQuery

$(el).outerHeight();

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el.offsetHeight

Outer Height With Margin

jQuery

$(el).outerHeight(true);

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function outerHeight(el) {
  var height = el.offsetHeight;
  var style = el.currentStyle || getComputedStyle(el);

  height += parseInt(style.marginTop) + parseInt(style.marginBottom);
  return height;
}

outerHeight(el);

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function outerHeight(el) {
  var height = el.offsetHeight;
  var style = getComputedStyle(el);

  height += parseInt(style.marginTop) + parseInt(style.marginBottom);
  return height;
}

outerHeight(el);

Outer Width With Margin

jQuery

$(el).outerWidth(true);

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function outerWidth(el) {
  var width = el.offsetWidth;
  var style = el.currentStyle || getComputedStyle(el);

  width += parseInt(style.marginLeft) + parseInt(style.marginRight);
  return width;
}

outerWidth(el);

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function outerWidth(el) {
  var width = el.offsetWidth;
  var style = getComputedStyle(el);

  width += parseInt(style.marginLeft) + parseInt(style.marginRight);
  return width;
}

outerWidth(el);

Outer Width

jQuery

$(el).outerWidth();

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el.offsetWidth

Parent

jQuery

$(el).parent();

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el.parentNode

Position

jQuery

$(el).position();

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{left: el.offsetLeft, top: el.offsetTop}

Position Relative To Viewport

jQuery

var offset = el.offset();

{
  top: offset.top - document.body.scrollTop,
  left: offset.left - document.body.scrollLeft
}

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el.getBoundingClientRect()

Prepend

jQuery

$(parent).prepend(el);

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parent.insertBefore(el, parent.firstChild);

Remove

jQuery

$(el).remove();

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el.parentNode.removeChild(el);

Remove Class

jQuery

$(el).removeClass(className);

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if (el.classList)
  el.classList.remove(className);
else
  el.className = el.className.replace(new RegExp('(^|\\b)' + className.split(' ').join('|') + '(\\b|$)', 'gi'), ' ');

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el.classList.remove(className);

Replace From Html

jQuery

$(el).replaceWith(string);

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el.outerHTML = string;

Set Attributes

jQuery

$(el).attr('tabindex', 3);

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el.setAttribute('tabindex', 3);

Set Html

jQuery

$(el).html(string);

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el.innerHTML = string;

Set Style

jQuery

$(el).css('border-width', '20px');

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// Use a class if possible
el.style.borderWidth = '20px';

Set Text

jQuery

$(el).text(string);

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if (el.textContent !== undefined)
  el.textContent = string;
else
  el.innerText = string;

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el.textContent = string;

Siblings

jQuery

$(el).siblings();

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var siblings = Array.prototype.slice.call(el.parentNode.children);

for (var i = siblings.length; i--;) {
  if (siblings[i] === el) {
    siblings.splice(i, 1);
    break;
  }
}

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Array.prototype.filter.call(el.parentNode.children, function(child){
  return child !== el;
});

Toggle Class

jQuery

$(el).toggleClass(className);

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if (el.classList) {
  el.classList.toggle(className);
} else {
    var classes = el.className.split(' ');
    var existingIndex = -1;
    for (var i = classes.length; i--;) {
      if (classes[i] === className)
        existingIndex = i;
    }

    if (existingIndex >= 0)
      classes.splice(existingIndex, 1);
    else
      classes.push(className);

  el.className = classes.join(' ');
}

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if (el.classList) {
  el.classList.toggle(className);
} else {
  var classes = el.className.split(' ');
  var existingIndex = classes.indexOf(className);

  if (existingIndex >= 0)
    classes.splice(existingIndex, 1);
  else
    classes.push(className);

  el.className = classes.join(' ');
}

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el.classList.toggle(className);

事件

Off

jQuery

$(el).off(eventName, eventHandler);

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function removeEventListener(el, eventName, handler) {
  if (el.removeEventListener)
    el.removeEventListener(eventName, handler);
  else
    el.detachEvent('on' + eventName, handler);
}

removeEventListener(el, eventName, handler);

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el.removeEventListener(eventName, eventHandler);

On

jQuery

$(el).on(eventName, eventHandler);

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function addEventListener(el, eventName, handler) {
  if (el.addEventListener) {
    el.addEventListener(eventName, handler);
  } else {
    el.attachEvent('on' + eventName, function(){
      handler.call(el);
    });
  }
}

addEventListener(el, eventName, handler);

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el.addEventListener(eventName, eventHandler);

Ready

jQuery

$(document).ready(function(){

});

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function ready(fn) {
  if (document.readyState != 'loading'){
    fn();
  } else if (document.addEventListener) {
    document.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', fn);
  } else {
    document.attachEvent('onreadystatechange', function() {
      if (document.readyState != 'loading')
        fn();
    });
  }
}

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function ready(fn) {
  if (document.readyState != 'loading'){
    fn();
  } else {
    document.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', fn);
  }
}

指定事件触发

jQuery

$(el).trigger('my-event', {some: 'data'});

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// Custom events are not natively supported, so you have to hijack a random
// event.
//
// Just use jQuery.

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if (window.CustomEvent) {
  var event = new CustomEvent('my-event', {detail: {some: 'data'}});
} else {
  var event = document.createEvent('CustomEvent');
  event.initCustomEvent('my-event', true, true, {some: 'data'});
}

el.dispatchEvent(event);

Trigger Native

jQuery

$(el).trigger('change');

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if (document.createEvent) {
  var event = document.createEvent('HTMLEvents');
  event.initEvent('change', true, false);
  el.dispatchEvent(event);
} else {
  el.fireEvent('onchange');
}

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// For a full list of event types: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/document.createEvent
var event = document.createEvent('HTMLEvents');
event.initEvent('change', true, false);
el.dispatchEvent(event);

技巧

Array Each

jQuery

$.each(array, function(i, item){

});

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function forEach(array, fn) {
  for (i = 0; i < array.length; i++)
    fn(array[i], i);
}

forEach(array, function(item, i){

});

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array.forEach(function(item, i){

});

深度扩展

jQuery

$.extend(true, {}, objA, objB);

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var deepExtend = function(out) {
  out = out || {};

  for (var i = 1; i < arguments.length; i++) {
    var obj = arguments[i];

    if (!obj)
      continue;

    for (var key in obj) {
      if (obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
        if (typeof obj[key] === 'object')
          deepExtend(out[key], obj[key]);
        else
          out[key] = obj[key];
      }
    }
  }

  return out;
};

deepExtend({}, objA, objB);

Bind

jQuery

$.proxy(fn, context);

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fn.apply(context, arguments);

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fn.bind(context);

jQuery

$.extend({}, objA, objB);

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var extend = function(out) {
  out = out || {};

  for (var i = 1; i < arguments.length; i++) {
    if (!arguments[i])
      continue;

    for (var key in arguments[i]) {
      if (arguments[i].hasOwnProperty(key))
        out[key] = arguments[i][key];
    }
  }

  return out;
};

extend({}, objA, objB);

Index Of

jQuery

$.inArray(item, array);

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function indexOf(array, item) {
  for (var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
    if (array[i] === item)
      return i;
  }
  return -1;
}

indexOf(array, item);

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array.indexOf(item);

Is Array

jQuery

$.isArray(arr);

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isArray = Array.isArray || function(arr) {
  return Object.prototype.toString.call(arr) == '[object Array]';
}

isArray(arr);

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Array.isArray(arr);

Map

jQuery

$.map(array, function(value, index){

});

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function map(arr, fn) {
  var results = [];
  for (var i = 0; i < arr.length; i++)
    results.push(fn(arr[i], i));
  return results;
}

map(array, function(value, index){

});

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array.map(function(value, index){

});

Now

jQuery

$.now();

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new Date().getTime();

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Date.now();

Parse Html

jQuery

$.parseHTML(htmlString);

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var parseHTML = function(str) {
  var el = document.createElement('div');
  el.innerHTML = str;
  return el.children;
};

parseHTML(htmlString);

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var parseHTML = function(str) {
  var tmp = document.implementation.createHTMLDocument();
  tmp.body.innerHTML = str;
  return tmp.body.children;
};

parseHTML(htmlString);

解析 Json

jQuery

$.parseJSON(string);

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JSON.parse(string);

Trim

jQuery

$.trim(string);

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string.replace(/^\s+|\s+$/g, '');

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string.trim();

Type

jQuery

$.type(obj);

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Object.prototype.toString.call(obj)
                .replace(/^\[object (.+)\]$/, "$1")
                .toLowerCase();

AJAX

新版的JavaScript API里提供了一个全新的可以实现ajax的API——fetch,这个api采用了全新的 Promise 架构,使用起来更方便,更灵活,详细用法请参考《你不需要jQuery(三):新AJAX方法fetch() 》。

JSON

jQuery

$.getJSON('/my/url', function(data) {

});

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var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('GET', '/my/url', true);

request.onreadystatechange = function() {
  if (this.readyState === 4) {
    if (this.status >= 200 && this.status < 400) {
      // Success!
      var data = JSON.parse(this.responseText);
    } else {
      // Error :(
    }
  }
};

request.send();
request = null;

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var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('GET', '/my/url', true);

request.onload = function() {
  if (request.status >= 200 && request.status < 400) {
    // Success!
    var data = JSON.parse(request.responseText);
  } else {
    // We reached our target server, but it returned an error

  }
};

request.onerror = function() {
  // There was a connection error of some sort
};

request.send();

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var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('GET', '/my/url', true);

request.onload = function() {
  if (this.status >= 200 && this.status < 400) {
    // Success!
    var data = JSON.parse(this.response);
  } else {
    // We reached our target server, but it returned an error

  }
};

request.onerror = function() {
  // There was a connection error of some sort
};

request.send();

Post

jQuery

$.ajax({
  type: 'POST',
  url: '/my/url',
  data: data
});

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var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('POST', '/my/url', true);
request.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8');
request.send(data);

Request

jQuery

$.ajax({
  type: 'GET',
  url: '/my/url',
  success: function(resp) {

  },
  error: function() {

  }
});

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var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('GET', '/my/url', true);

request.onreadystatechange = function() {
  if (this.readyState === 4) {
    if (this.status >= 200 && this.status < 400) {
      // Success!
      var resp = this.responseText;
    } else {
      // Error :(
    }
  }
};

request.send();
request = null;

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var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('GET', '/my/url', true);

request.onload = function() {
  if (request.status >= 200 && request.status < 400) {
    // Success!
    var resp = request.responseText;
  } else {
    // We reached our target server, but it returned an error

  }
};

request.onerror = function() {
  // There was a connection error of some sort
};

request.send();

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var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.open('GET', '/my/url', true);

request.onload = function() {
  if (this.status >= 200 && this.status < 400) {
    // Success!
    var resp = this.response;
  } else {
    // We reached our target server, but it returned an error

  }
};

request.onerror = function() {
  // There was a connection error of some sort
};

request.send();

特效

淡入淡出

jQuery

$(el).fadeIn();

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function fadeIn(el) {
  var opacity = 0;

  el.style.opacity = 0;
  el.style.filter = '';

  var last = +new Date();
  var tick = function() {
    opacity += (new Date() - last) / 400;
    el.style.opacity = opacity;
    el.style.filter = 'alpha(opacity=' + (100 * opacity)|0 + ')';

    last = +new Date();

    if (opacity < 1) {
      (window.requestAnimationFrame && requestAnimationFrame(tick)) || setTimeout(tick, 16);
    }
  };

  tick();
}

fadeIn(el);

谷歌浏览器,火狐浏览器,IE9+

function fadeIn(el) {
  el.style.opacity = 0;

  var last = +new Date();
  var tick = function() {
    el.style.opacity = +el.style.opacity + (new Date() - last) / 400;
    last = +new Date();

    if (+el.style.opacity < 1) {
      (window.requestAnimationFrame && requestAnimationFrame(tick)) || setTimeout(tick, 16)
    }
  };

  tick();
}

fadeIn(el);

谷歌浏览器,火狐浏览器,IE10+

el.classList.add('show');
el.classList.remove('hide');
.show {
  transition: opacity 400ms;
}
.hide {
  opacity: 0;
}

Hide

jQuery

$(el).hide();

谷歌浏览器,火狐浏览器,IE8+

el.style.display = 'none';

Show

jQuery

$(el).show();

谷歌浏览器,火狐浏览器,IE8+

el.style.display = '';
  1. Terry:这篇文章太棒了!
  2. guorm:棒棒哒~
  3. alan:good, thank you!
  4. ioy:总结的不错

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